Skip to main content

Table 3 Key signalling pathways involved in mammalian lung development

From: Developmental genetics of the COPD lung

Signalling pathway Role in lung development
Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) Role in the rate of airway bud extension
Involved in the formation of new alveoli
Limits proliferation or migration of branching epithelium
FGF among the signals that confer anterior-posterior identity
Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) Important in regulating lung cell proliferation and asymmetry
Negatively regulates FGF10
Limits lung bud growth
NK2 homeobox (NKX2.1) Important in formation of tracheo-oesophageal septum
Essential for initiating branching
Notch Key role in cell-cell communication during lung development
Promotes proximal lung cell fates
Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) Drives polarisation of cells
Required for branching
Involved in determining lung architecture
Retinoic Acid Promotes growth of the primary lung buds
Down-regulates TGF β signalling
Transforming growth factor β/Bone morphogenic protein (BMP)- SMAD (TGFβ/BMP-SMAD) Can inhibit/stimulate lung morphogenesis
Contributes to distal lung development
BMP among the signal that confer anterior-posterior identity
Wnt/β-catenin Negatively regulates branching
Involved in developing peripheral airways
  1. Lung development and signalling pathway information was collected from many sources [39, 42, 43, 106120]