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Table 1 Summary of long-acting bronchodilators including combinations

From: Cutting edge of COPD therapy: current pharmacological therapy and future direction

  Dosing Reported superiority over other long-acting bronchodilators or ICSs References
LAMAs    
Tiotropium once-daily vs. salmeterol: trough FEV1, improving dyspnea, health-related QOL, preventing exacerbations 27–40
Glycopyrronium once-daily   41, 42
Aclidinium twice-daily   43, 44
LABAs    
Salmeterol twice-daily   46–48
Formoterol twice-daily   49
Indacaterol once-daily vs. salmeterol or formoterol: trough FEV1 and improving dyspnea 50–53
Olodaterol once-daily vs. formoterol: health-related QOL 54–56
LABA/LAMA    
Umeclidinium once-daily vs. umeclidinium or vilanterol: trough FEV1, improving dyspnea, health-related QOL 60–63
-Vilanterol
Indacaterol once-daily vs. tiotropium: trough FEV1, improving dyspnea, health-related QOL, preventing exacerbations; vs. glycopyrronium: trough FEV1, health-related QOL, preventing exacerbations; vs. indacaterol: trough FEV1, improving dyspnea 64–66
-Glycopyrronium
LABA/ICS    
Fluticasone -Salmeterol twice-daily vs. salmeterol or fluticasone: trough FEV1, health-related QOL, preventing exacerbation 48, 76, 77
Budesonid twice-daily vs. formoterol: trough FEV1, improving dyspnea, health-related QOL, preventing exacerbations 78, 79
-formoterol
Fluticasone furoate -Vilanterol once-daily vs. fluticasone furoate: trough FEV1 80