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Table 2 Baseline characteristics

From: Respiratory effects of particulate air pollution episodes in former smokers with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a panel study

  COPD [57.2 % (n = 16)] Control [42.9 % (n = 12)] P value
Male [%(n)] 81.3 (13) 50.0 (6) 0.11
Smoking history [mean ± SD]    
Smoking (pack-years) 71.2 ± 24.1 40.1 ± 15.5 <0.001
Years since quitting smoking 8.9 ± 8.0 21.2 ± 9.0 <0.001
Spirometry [mean ± SD]    
FEV1 (L) 1.1 ± 0.5 2.5 ± 0.4 <0.001
FVC (L) 3.0 ± 0.9 3.4 ± 0.7 0.18
FEV1/FVC % 38.7 ± 11.4 74.7 ± 8.1 <0.001
FEV1 % predicted 39.1 ± 16.6 86.5 ± 9.1 <0.001
FVC % predicted 74.6 ± 17.1 90.8 ± 12.5 <0.001
Inhaled Medications [%(n)]    
Taking inhaled corticosteroid 81.3 (13) 0 <0.001
Taking inhaled long acting anticholinergic 75.0 (12) 7.7 (1) <0.001
Taking inhaled long acting beta agonist 81.3 (13) 0 <0.001
Taking inhaled short acting beta agonist 81.3 (13) 0 <0.001
  1. P-values for comparisons between the COPD and Controls were computed using t-tests for continuous variables and Fisher exact tests for categorical variables (gender, history of antibiotics, and use of inhaled medications